CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 History of krau reserve
1.2 The Reserve After war
1.3 Change of reserve baondary
1.4 Location of the resrve
1.5 Iklim/climate data from jabatan kaji cuaca
1.6 The terrain around the reserve
1.7 Population and lan used around the reserve
1.8 Soil types
1.9 Flora in the reserve
2.0 Justification f the study
2.1 Objective of the study
3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.1 Rain forest
3.2 Biodiversity abundance of flora by using Shannon index
3.3 Rain forest ecosystem
3.4 Productivity from forest resources such as herbs
3.5 Lowland forest
3.6 The important of herbs study in forest stand ecology and distribution aspect
3.7 Forest resources such herbs pertaining to economic growth
4.0 PLOT LOCATION AND DESIGN METHOD
4.1Site study plots sized radius 25 meter each with 75 plots
4.2 Method Design
4.3 The Terrain
4.4 Data analysis
5.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION
5.1 Herbs composition and distribution in Bukit Tapah and Bukit Rengit Lanchang Mukim Semantan Temerloh_famili myrticacaea
5.2 The Abundance of herbs in Bukit Tapah and Bukit Rengit using Shannon index
5.3 Herbs distribution
5.4 Forest stand of Dipterokarpacea family forest briefly explaination
5.5 The relation abundance compare with others forest stand
5.6 Ecology aspect that influenced the herbs growth and distribution
5.7 The Suitable Ecosystem for Herbs Growth Wellnes_under canopy of meranti merah and chengal.
5.8 The Economy Aspect Through Productivity of Herbs in Primary Forest Stand
Herbs study 6000-7000 herbs are determine in the nusantara and Malaysia as cited in Hermani et al 2007
Lowland dipterokarp is the forest from family dipterokarpaceae which growth at > 300 meter above sea level
Hilly dipterokarpap forest is refer to the forest family dipterojarpaceae which growth 300-750 above sea level…
Krau forest reserve was gazetted since 1923. The site study were carried out in the forest stand of Bukit Rengit and Bukit Tapah covering 200 hektar consisting by the group of Meranti Merah , Merbau and Keruing iN family Dipterocarpaceae/ kaum Damar
1.1 History of Krau Forest and Wildlife Reserve in Temerloh District Phg Darul Makmur
Krau forest reserve was gazetted since 1923 with the forest covering of 62395 ha / 623.95 km square and 603kmsquare nowadays after harvesting and Degazetted some of the forest stand here in 1969. Refered to Table 1
1.2 Krau Reserve After War
The reserve was managed by Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negera MERGASTUA (PERHILITAN)
Logging operation in 1969 in the north of the reserve such as Perlok ; eastern and southern of the rerserve.
Eastern boundary of the reserve nowadays become the Felda Jenderak Selatan and southern boundary become the Felda Bukit Damar stake holder. Bukit Damar is 1.5 km far from the reserve.
The implication of Felda stake holder oil palm plantation is the decrease of size of lowland forest stand at the southern boundary
As refered to Milton (1960)The "pencari getah jelutung" for chew gum are also active in around this reserve.
Lowland dipterokarp forest which open for Felda in the almost fertilize soil.
According to steven 1967 mention that the eastern of bukit tapah were logged along side of the krau river.
As cited in Steven 1967 proposed for gazzetting the resrve as Rizab Hidupan Liar Krau in 1960an.
1.5 IKLIM/ CLIMATE
The reserve is located in the dry season of monsoon timur laut because it was located between banjaran timur in eastern and banjaran titiwangsa in the western.
The annually rainfall was 1968mm in temerloh district. The heavy rainfall was in april to june and November. The average suhu is 26.4 darjah celcius annully in 1999 data from Jabatan Kaji Cuaca, Temerloh
Average rainfall in 1986 to 1990 statedthat the month of novemebr is the highest e.i 219.8mm followed by September, 185.0mm; Disember 181.2mm and oktober 178.5 mm
The month of febraury is the lowest which stated 63.7mm. The highest evaporation/ sejatan is occurred in mac with 160.9mm followed by april 153.7mm and febraury 143.3mm
As referred to jabatan kaji cuaca Temerloh mention that the month of November is the lowest in evoparation/sejatan but as the highest rainfall in the reserve
1.5 THE TERRAIN AND VEGETATION IN THE RESERVE
There are 0.5 million hektar the forest stand around the krau forest reserve that managed by forest department…
According to Jabatan Hutan mention that the Jabatan Hutan managed 1.4 million hectare of forest stand such as Hutan Simpan Som. Refered to Table 2/excell
The terrain in this reserve is around 45 meter to 2,108 meter above sea level. The southern boundary and the the middle of this reserve are lowland dipterokarp forest. The upper hilly and mountain forest /the mountain range located in noth western of this reserve are with Gunung Benum the highest terrain.
Bukit Tapah and Bukit Rengit are located in the southern of this reserve. The rivers which flowed through the reserve is Sungai Krau, Sungai Lompat and Sungai Teris which known as anak Sungai Semantan. The reserve is 60,338 hektar after logging operation in 1969. The forest stand covering of 156,607 hactare surround Krau Reserve which known as Hutan Simpan managed by Forest Department of Daerah Raub.
1.6 THE POPULATION AND LAND USE
The reserved was gazetted since 1923 with suirrounding by 156,607 ha of primary forest stand nowadays.
The perimeter of the reserve is 136 km refered to ArcGis 3. Around the reserve are
a. 14.5 percent is plantation such as Felda and for agriculture purposes
b. 267 percent for private plantation
c. 58.65 covered by primary forest stand.
In 2009 there is The Agfro food Industry Sdn Bhd started the plantation operation by planting the nadir fruit such as citrus limau nipis, nangka etc in the southern of the reserve.
There are 12 thousand people live around the rserve. Refered to Banci Penduduk 1980 and 1991 the population of Phg State increase 2.72 percent.
Three mukim around the reserve are mukim Semantan, Kerdau, Jenderak and Gali
The lowland forest of the reseve consist of hornblende granit , sianit, pairoksin granit porphiri dan dioxide. This type of soil is fertilized naturally at the top soil.
North eastern of Gunung Benum consist of batu batan Trias and Lahar gunung berapi until reach to the elevation of 1000 meter above sea level. In Gunung Benum there is granite rock. Also the type of acidic soil in upper hilly forest.
1.8 FLORA IN THE RESERVE
There are 674 species of vegetation were determined in the lowland forest in this reserve. We believed that there are more than 674 species of vegetation grow in the reserve. May be 4000 species with 2400 species of wood trees such as meranti merah group, merbau and keruing.
The highly diversity of flora in the reserve is the indicator that there are a lot of herbs have grown in the forest stand of this reserve.
The herbs such as ungkat Ali, Rempah Gunung, Akar Haji Samad, Pasak Bumi, Medang Sarsi, Tungkat Ali Hitam etc have grown wellness in the forest stand
As cited in Whitmore 1972 classified the forest in Malaysia as
A. lowland dipterokarp forest <300 meter above sealevel;
B. hilly dipterokarp forest 300-750 m;
C. upper hilly dipterokarp forest 750-900; .
D.Teja range mountain forest >1200meter a.s.l ;
E. Mountain forest.
Hopea, Dipterocarpus cornutus, D. baudii, Shorea acuminate and shorea ovalis are the family of dipetrocarpaceae have grown in lowland forest <300 meter a.s.l
which known as lowland forest
The elevation of 750 – 900 meter is hilly forest and 900 meter to 1200 is upper hilly forest. Resak, Meranti, Keruing and Meranti Tembaga, Meranti Seraya etc have grown in the hilly forest.
4.2 DESIGN METHOD
The 75 plots study will set up with radius/jejari 25 meter in Bukit Tapah
So the size of 1962.5 meter persegi for each plot and the study plots will covering the 75 plots sized 147,187.5 meter persegi / 14.71875 ha
Some lists of herbs in Malaysia
1. Adas/ Foeniculum vulgare
2. Bawang merah/Allium cepai
3. Bawang putih/Allium sativum
4. Belimbing buluh/Avverhoa bilimbi
5. Beluntas/ Pluchea indica
6. Bidara uoas/Merremiae mammosa
7. Patawali/Tinospora crispa atau T.rumphii
8. Buah merah/Pandanus conoideus
9. Cili/Piper retrofractum
10. Daun dewa/Gynura pseudochina
11. Daun ungu/Graptophylum pictum
12. Halia/Zingiber officinale
13. Jati belanda/Guazuma ulmifolia
14. Limau nipis/ Citrus aurantifolia
15. Jintan/Coleus amboinicus
16. Kapulaga/Amomum cardamomum
17. Kayu putih/Melaleuca leucadendra
18. Keji beling/Strobilanthes crispus
19. Kemukus/Piper cubeba atau Cubeba officinalis
20. Daun kari/Murrayya paniculata
21. Cekur /Kaempferia galangal
22. Gelenggang/Cassia alata
23. Misai kucing/Orthosiphon aristatus, O.grandiflorus
24. Kunyit/Curcumadomestica atau C.longa
25. Lempuyang/Zingiber amaricans
26. Lengkuas/Alpinia galangal atau Languas galangal
27. Lidah buaya/Aloe vera
28. Mahkota Dewa/Phaleria macrocarpa
29. Mengkudu/Morinda citrifolia
30. Dukung Anak/Phyllanthus niruri
31. Pegaga/Centela asiatica, Hydrocotyle asiatica
32. Peria/Momordica charantia
33. Rozel/Hibiscus sabdariffa
34. Hempedu Bumi/Andrographis paniculata,Justicia paniculata, J.latebrosa
35. Sambung Nyawa/Gynura procumbensi
36. Sembung/Blumea balsamifera
37. Sirih/Piper betle
38. Kemunting cina/Vinca rosea atau Cantharanthus roseus
39. Tempuyung/Sonchus arvensis
40. Temulawak/Curcuma xanthorrhiza
41. Akar Aji Samat /Jakia omata
42. Rempah Gunung
43. Tongkat Ali
44. Pasak Bumi/Tongkat Ali Hitam
45. Medang Sarsi
46. Ubi Jaga
47. Mas Cotek
The Changing of gazetted and degazzeted og Krau Reserve
Notis Kawasan No Warta tarikh Undang undang
Warta asal 55,182 ha
136,300acre GN3541 15.6.1923 Enakmen perlindungan binatang dan burung burung liar 1921
Semula 53,042 ha
131,000ekar GN5685 4.9.1925 Enakmen perlindungan binatang dan burung burung liar 1921
GN2848 9.6.1939 Enakmen perlindunbgan binatang dan burung burung liar 1921
keluar 1,984 ha
4,900ekar GN102 22.4.1965 Enakmen perlindunbgan binatang dan burung burung liar 1955
keluar 891 ha
2,200ekar GN39 22.2.1968 Enakmen perlindungan binatang dan burung burung liar 1955
Warta jenut ¼ batu batu dari jenut GN4754 13.11.1925 Enakmen perlindungan binatang dan burung burung liar 1921
Warta jenut ¼ batu dariJenut GN7079 23.7.1927 Enakmen perlindungan binatang dan burung burung liar 1921
Meor Ahmad Nizam b. Ahmad Sabri; 2003 Forest Plants Used in Malay Traditional Medicine of Trengganu; Fakulti Hutan UPM Serdang
Hezliyana binti Husin 2003. Soil Characteristics Under Four Different Species at Ayer Hitam Forest Reserve Selangor; Fakulti Hutan Upm Serdang
Maizan binti Abdul Majid 1991. Chemical Constituent of 20 Years Old Meranti Tembaga (Shorea leprosula). Fakulti Hutan UPM Serdang
Zahari bin Haji ismail 1994 moisture stress tolerance of seraya (shorea curtisii) and other selectedhill dipterokarp forestHDF species. Fakulti hutan upm serdang
Mohd Zahari bin Salleh 1994 Soil nutrient and species pattern for selected species in hill dipterokarp forest. Fakulti hutan upm serdang
Hermani dan Mono Rahardjo, Khairun Asikin Alias 2007; Pembiakan Tanaman Herba; Ramuan Tradisional Untuk Kesihatan , Huraian Mengenai 40 Spesis Tanaman Herba Komersial; Penerbit Synergy Media Books dengan kerjasama Penebar Swadaya
Cheppy 2007;Adaptasi Nor Faridah Sharuddin; Atur Huruf Hamzah Ishak; Editor Kamarulzaman Abdullah; Grafik Ezani Imran; S.A Abdul Majeed and Co Sdn Bhd; edisi Bahasa Malaysia; Dicetak Nightingale Printing Sdn Bhd.