Herbs study that are 6000-7000 herbs have been determined in the nusantara and Malaysia as cited in Hermani et al 2007
Refered to Jabatan Hutan said that the lowland dipterocarp is the forest from family dipterocarpaceae which growth at > 300 meter above sea level. Thus the hill forest is refer to the forest family dipterocarpaceae which growth 300-750 above sea level…
As cited in Fakhrul Hatta 2003 said that The Krau forest reserve for wildlife was gazetted since 1923.
The site study will be carried out in the forest stand Bukit Tapah covering 200 hektar consisting by the group of Meranti Merah , Merbau and Keruing in family Dipterocarpaceae in BM we called family Damar
History of Krau Forest and Wildlife Reserve in Temerloh District Phg Darul Makmur.
Krau forest reserve was gazetted since 1923 with the forest covering of 62395 ha equal to 623.95 km square and 603 km square nowadays after harvesting and Degazetted some of the forest stand here in 1969. Refered to Table 1
Bukit Tapah is located in Krau Reserve Lanchang Mukim Semantan District of Temerloh.Th e reserve was managed by Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negera MERGASTUA (PERHILITAN)
An adequate study of herbs in hill forest stand that citation in systematic identification. There a lot of herbs grow in the shading of meranti merah canopy at the rainforest floor.
As cited in Meor Ahmad Nizam 2003 said that traditional medicine in malay community are practiced by elders, medicine men, rural and native peoples. They are assumed to know about traditional medicine and their medicinal plants. However the common name used to identify plants may differ in different localities. Every district has differences in local and common name.
The unsystematic identification and verification in naming of forest plants used by traditional medicinal practitionars in malay traditional medicine. The medicinal plants are mostly used in rural areas compared in urban areas. Most of the society where lives in urban areas do not know about medicines plants and traditional medicine. Traditional medicine have a much questionable about its effective, quality and their efficiency compared to modern medicine which have scientific method for preparation and its can get easily in the market such as pharmacy and clinic.
The people believed and confident with medicinal practices, which practiced by mu’alij a.k.a perawat As Syifa’ and the right muslim bomoh.
The malay traditional medicine practitioner depend on their knowledge and memory where continued from their family or generation. People approve the herbs remedial because its have advantages to cured much kind of diseases and illness with the bless by Allah.
i. To identify the herbs in Bukit Tapah
ii. To determine the diversity and abundance of herbs spp
iii. To document the usage of herbs spp
2. Literature Review
As cited in Meor Ahmad Nizam 2003 said that traditional medicine is a science or practice in medicine and healthcare, which has been going on for generation to generation. It is imparted thru the verbal and written forms as well as, thru the practiced and belief of a community. This science is divided into two aspect that are spiritual and empirical. Traditional herbs medicines have evolved in their social and cultural setting through various at ages to the present. In some continental regions, traditional medicine has developed into well documentation and formally established system regularly used by large parts of the populations. In island community, traditional medicines have remain more confined to smaller cultural groups relatively contained within their community and linguistic environments. The herbs medicine also combine with the spell reading of ayatul qur’an with the iman to Allah who will cures the disease, inshaAllah
2.1 Rain Forest Ecology
Refered to Jabatan Hutan Semenanjung Malaysia, as cited in Whitmore 1972 and Fakhrul Hatta 2003 classified the rainforest in Malaysia as
A. Lowland dipterokarp forest <300 meter above sea level;
B. Hill dipterokarp forest 300-750 m;
C. Upper hilly dipterokarp forest 750-900; .
D.Teja range mountain forest >1200meter a.s.l ;
E. Mountain forest.
Hopea spp, Keruing Dipterocarpus cornutus, D. baudii, Shorea acuminate and Shorea ovalis are the family of dipterocarpaceae have grown in lowland forest < 300 meter a.s.l. which known as lowland forest.
The elevation of 750 – 900 meter is hilly forest and 900 meter to 1200 is upper hilly forest. Resak, Meranti, Keruing and Meranti Tembaga, Meranti Seraya etc have grown in the hill forest. Logging operation in 1969 in the north of the reserve such as Perlok ; eastern and southern of the rerserve. Eastern boundary of the reserve nowadays become the Felda Jenderak Selatan and southern boundary become the Felda Bukit Damar stake holder. Bukit Damar is 1.5 km far from the reserve.
The implication of Felda stake holder oil palm plantation is the decreasing in size of lowland forest stand at the southern boundary
According to Milton (1960) as cited in Fakhrul Hatta 2003 said that the "pencari getah jelutung" for chew gum are also active in around this reserve.
Pencari madu Tualang also active in this forest reserve such as ayah Nik and Tok Su sell the madu lebah Tualang in Kampung Cempaka and kampung mempateh with the price of RM27 for 375 g.
Lowland forest which open for Felda in the almost fertilize soil. According to Steven 1967 mention that the eastern of Bukit Tapah were logged along side of the Krau river.
As cited in Fakhrul Hatta 2003 said that Steven1967 proposed for gazzetting the reserve as Rizab Hidupan Liar Krau in 1960an.
The reserve is located in the dry season of monsoon timur laut because it was located between Banjaran Timur in eastern and Banjaran Titiwangsa in the western.
The annually rainfall was 1968 mm in Temerloh district. The heavy rainfall was in April to June and November. The average temperature is 26.4 degree Celcius annually in 1999, the data from Jabatan Kaji Cuaca, Temerloh
Average rainfall in 1986 to 1990 stated that the month of Novemebr is the highest i.e 219.8mm followed by September, 185.0mm; Disember 181.2mm and Oktober 178.5 mm
The month of Febraury is the lowest which stated 63.7mm. The highest evaporation is occurred in Mac with 160.9mm followed by April 153.7mm and Febraury 143.3mm.
Referred to Jabatan Kaji Cuaca District of Temerloh informed that the month of November is the lowest in evoparation but as the highest rainfall in the reserve.
As cited in Fakhrul Hatta 2003 said that there are 0.5 million hektar the forest stand around the krau forest reserve that managed by The Forest Department
According to Jabatan Hutan as cited in Fakhrul Hatta 2003 said that the Jabatan Hutan managed 1.4 million hectare of forest stand such as Hutan Simpan Som asshown in Table 2.
The terrain in this reserve is around 45 meter to 2,108 meter above sea level. The southern boundary and the the middle of this reserve are lowland dipterokarp forest. The upper hilly and mountain forest /the mountain range located in noth western of this reserve are with Gunung Benum the highest terrain.
Bukit Tapah 777 meter above sea level is located in the southern of this reserve. The rivers which flowed through the reserve is Sungai Krau, Sungai Lompat and Sungai Teris which known as anak Sungai Semantan. The reserve is 60,338 hektar after logging operation in 1969. Harvesting of logs in forest stand including the area of 1900 hektar at 1969 impact the northern of the reserve boundry changing the landuse from wildlife reserve forest to the aquaculture activity after the reserve was degazetted . The forest stand covering of 156,607 hactare surround Krau Reserve which known as Hutan Simpan managed by Forest Department of Daerah Raub.
The reserved was gazetted since 1923 with surrounding by 156,607 ha of primary forest stand managed by Jabatan Hutan Daerah Raub and Jabatan Hutan Daerah Temerloh nowadays.
The perimeter of the reserve is 136 km refered to ArcGis 3. Around the reserve are
i.. 14.5 percent is plantation such as Felda and for agriculture purposes
ii. 267 percent for private plantation
iii. 58.65 percent covered by primary forest stand.
In 2009 there is The Agfro food Industry Sdn Bhd started the plantation operation by planting the nadir fruit such as citrus limau nipis, nangka etc in the southern of the reserve.
There are 12 thousand people live around the reserve. Refered to Banci Penduduk 1980 and 1991 the population of Phg State increase 2.72 percent. Three mukim around the reserve are mukim Semantan, Kerdau, Jenderak and Gali.
The lowland forest of the reseve consist of hornblende granit , sianit, pairoksin granit porphiri dan dioxide. This type of soil is fertilized naturally at the top soil.
North eastern of Gunung Benum consist of batu batan Trias and Lahar gunung berapi until reach to the elevation of 1000 meter above sea level. In Gunung Benum there is granite rock. Also the type of acidic soil in upper hilly forest.
There are 674 species of vegetation were determined in the lowland forest in this reserve. We believed that there are more than 674 species of vegetation grow in the reserve. May be 4000 species with 2400 species of wood trees such as meranti merah group, merbau and keruing.
The highly diversity of flora in the reserve is the indicator that there are a lot of herbs have grown in the forest stand of this reserve.
The herbs such as Tungkat Ali, Rempah Gunung, Akar Haji Samad, Pasak Bumi, Medang Sarsi, Tungkat Ali Hitam etc have grown wellness in the forest stand
2.1.1 Climatic factors
According to Richard 1963 as cited in Zahari Haji Ismail 1994 said that in the highland tropic, there is a steady decrease in ambient temperature with the increase in altitude. In the tropics, temperature decrease at the rate of 0.4 degree to 0.7 degree celcius per 100 meter increase in altitude. said However it varies with some factors which include the locality, season and air humidity as refered to Dale 1963 as cited in Zahari Haji Ismail 1994. Above 2500 meter , the rate decreases to 1.2 degree celcius per 300 meter rise. Temperature affects plant due to its influence on their growth processes and distribution.
According to Burgess 1975 as cited in Zahari Haji Ismail said that the native mountain plant may die when transferred to the lowlands. The optimal temperature for photosynthesis for such plants are lower than for respiration, as such the highl lowland ambient temperature which wxceeds optimal for photosynthesis, increases respiration rate, leading to wet depletion.
According to Wyatt-Smith 1963 as cited in Zahari Haji Ismail 1994 said that the topography plays an important role in determining the rainfall of an area. According to Richard 1964 as cited in Zahari Haji Ismail 1994 said that maximum rainfall in tropical highlands occurs at altitudes where temperature is cold enough to the high mountains.
According to Smith 1963 as cited in Zahari Haji Ismail 1994 said that the rainfall reaches its maximum at the altitudes of 300 meter a.s.l. and beyond this it decreases. As cited in Zahari Haji Ismail there must been some moisture stress occured on the ridges. Thus it is very difficult to find meranti seraya on the foot of hills due to the occurance of heavy rainfall and lack of regular drought.
According to grubb and whitemore 1969 as cited in Zahari Haji Ismail 1994 said that the frequency of fog or cloud in the rainforest is the most vital factor determining the distribution of the formation of vegetation types in the mountains.
The light intensity at 180 meter a.s.l in coastal hill rainforest measured at the forest floor is around 2 percent (whitemore and wong 1969) as cited in zahari haji ismail 1994. While inland hill forest is measured abaout 10 percent less sunshine than the plains (Burgess 1969). The increasing fog frequency decreases light inthesity, dampens the range of light intensities and generally exerts a moderating influence on the annual variation pattern of light intensity (Brown 1919) as cited in Zahari Haji Ismail 1994.
According to Robinwith 1951 as cited in Zahari Haji Ismail 1994 said that the most important use of light by plant is for photosynthesis, and the average actively growing land plant use only about 1 percent of visible emission for photosynthesis.
As cited in Zahari Haji Ismail 1994 said that light intensity available in the forest floor around highland rainforest stand is adequate for the growth of herbs.
As cited in Zahari Haji Ismail 1994 said that the humidity increase with altitude up to the fog belt regions (Burgess, 1969). According to Richard 1964 as cited in Zahari Haji Ismail 1994 said that the condition on the mountain rain forest, has found the zone of maximum humidity and highly evaporation increases.
As cited in Zahari Haji Ismail 1994 said that the amount of air movement affects the rate of evaporation and thus minimizing the temperature in the forest stand (Burgess 1969). Expected an increase in wind speed with elevation (Burgess, 1975). According to Smith 1965 as cited in Zahari Haji Ismail 1994 said that the highly wind speed occurs at the highly altitudes.
According to Richards 1964 as cited in Zahari Haji Ismail 1994 said that the both structure and floristic composition of the highland forests are partly determined by the wind speed and he suggested that wind may be one of the factors that cause the maximum drawfing of the vegetation on isolated peaks and ridges on highland and mountain forest.
2.1.4 Soil Physical Condition.
As cited in Zahari Haji Ismail 1994 have written that there is a significantly relationship between plant composition and soil characteristics (Burgess 1975).
According to Richards 1964 as cited in Zahari haji ismail 1994 said that the soil at higher altitudes tend to be very shallow with thicker litter accumulation and contain bigger size rock due to the decrease of temperature and intense erosion which often result in very immature soils, especially on the steep slopes.
2.2 Biodiversity of Herbs Analyse by Using Spec Diversity Software.
2.3The important of herbs study in hill forest stand
The important of Medicine Herbs Plan.There alot of herbs grow up wellness in hill forest stand shading by group of Meranti Merah. Herbs medicinal plant have the potential to cure disease. These medicinal plant are able to cure, relief, cease and treat the disease. Thus this herbs plant source widely used in traditional medicine Fortunately nowadays it started been used in modern medication and treatment. Many scientist interserted to study on the effectiveness and the potential of medicinal herbs plant in curing disease. May among traditional medicinal practioner believed that tha substances produced by herbs plant almost same with substance produced by human body. Thus human body able to react with the substances with minimal effect.
According to Who Health Organization , almost 70 percent to 90 percent of the world population consumed the herbs mainly from developing and undeveloped country. Consuming the herbs because it is easily obtain and cheaper.
As cited in Latif 1994 said that in Malaysia there is more than 1,230 species of flowered plant been used in traditional treatment.
2.4 Herbs Resource Pertaining to Economic
Refered to Mohd Shariff 2001 said as proof, community demand towards ulam is increasing because of the awareness towards special properties of ulam. He also said that in the year 2000 the ulam selling successfully achieved about RM 3 million compared to RM1.3 million on year 1994.
Some herbs are medically useful, but the American public would benefit from increased regulation. Manufacturers should be able to ensure that herbs contain pure ingredients. Side effects and drug interactions should be listed. Well-designed studies are being conducted. The results will be helpful to physicians and patients when the clinical evidence becomes available.
As cited in Hezliyana Husin 2003 said that based on data provided by Kementerian Perusahaan Utama said that hebs and aromatic industry could help encouraging our country’s economy when its market value marked at RM4.5 bilion a years.
Herbs and aromatic industry will becoming a new commodity besides palm oil, rubber and crude oil. Unfortunately five percent of market used by local product because of unadequate in commercializing the herbs.
As cited in Hairul Azim Mahmud 2002 said that the commodity in this country plat herbs merely for their own use and not for the international market, for example Tongkat Ali Eurycoma longifolia, Kacpi Fatimah Labisia pumila and Pegaga Centella asiatica are among the thousands of hebs or effective medicine in curing various disease. Herbs are widely used in health care for ages until today. All these plants have been growing in our country in healthy and wellness in primary hilly forest stand, is the most suitable climate for herbs ecology.
Tongkat Ali is the herb in family Simarousbacaea, also known as Penawar pahit, Bedara, Tongkat baginda, Pasak bumi a.k.a Tongkat Ali Hitam or Tunjang Bumi refered to certain states in Malaysia.
Among the benefits of Tongkat Ali is the bitter stock extracted from the skin of its root which could be used as a tonic for postnatal mothers.
Besides its root extract usefull to anti malaria activities cause by protozoa, there is a lot of its benefit and the most popular is it could increase men’s sex performance.
Kacip Fatimah Labisia pumila is the herbs from family Myrsinaceae. This herbs is easily found in the primary hill forest stand.
In traditionally medicine, this herbs is normally boiled and served as a drink to pregnant women to ease the process of labor; it could also effective as a cure to flatulence, dysentery and problems during period and sex diseases.
Pegaga is the herbs from family Umbelliferae a slender and herbs with long stalked, green kidney-shape leaves.
Refered to Razak Hj Lajis 1996 said that Petai Parkia speciosa is very much favoured by Malaysian especially in the villege people. Despite its pungent smell, it could cure diabetes, heart and kidney disease. Petai is tall and big tree, which normally grows wild in forest. Ginger Zinger officinale is also identified to be used in curing kembung perut and could release gas/ wind in body. Young ginger can be made ulam and could be eaten as ulam or could be made as juice. It could also cure headaches
2.5 Link Between Traditional and Modern Medicine
Actually Traditional and modern medicine share a commong resources. They both utilize plants, animal, microorganism or minerals. These resources may be found either on and or in the sea.
As cited in Haliza 1996 said that the traditional medicine and modern medicine originates resource from similar raw reasources. These may be dried herbs or parts of plants, animals, the extract of which is used in treatments. In traditional medicines, these ingredients are eaten directly or boiled to extract the active chemical compounds in concentrated form. Malaysia the developing country is rich with the natural herbs resources inhabited inside the rain forest stand especially in meranti forest stand.
Traditional and alternative medicines in Malaysia appear to be finding appreciation by some modern practitioner, as they seek to understand their patient’s expectations and treatment seeking behavior. A clinician provides hid own interface with colleagues to determine their assessment of the alternative herbs medicinal treatment services used by country mu’alij who utilize both traditional and modern health care despite professional misgivings. It is clear that patients have their own reasons for doing so.
The explainations for this are provided partly from traditional practices as comfirmed by scientific research evidences, for example as cited in Azimahtol Hawariah’s 1994 said that the herbs plant derive for medicinal treatment such as the natural anticarcinogen products in the treatment of malignancies.
The production of traditional medical herb products in Malaysia has taken on such vital, clinically and economically that the government has established guidelines for safety pertaining to appealing and challenging with its strong economic and treatment implication. As cited in Nik Aziz 1999 focus on the key issues related to the vital pharmacological aspects in the determination of safe products for producers, sellers and particularly users of the products of traditional preparation
Tongkat Ali is the herb in family Simarousbacaea, also known as Penawar pahit, Bedara, Tongkat baginda, pasak bumi (Tongkat Ali Hitam) or Tunjang Bumi according to certain states in Malaysia.
Among the benefits of tongkat Ali is the bitter stock extracted from the skin of its root which could be ised as a tonic for postnatal mothers.
Besides its root extract usefull to anti malaria activities cuse by protozoa, there is a lot of its benefit and the most popular is it could increase men’s sex performance
Kacip Fatimah Labisia pumila is the herbs from family Myrsinaceae. This herbs is easity found in the primary hilly forest stand.
In traditionally medicine, this herbs is normally boiled and served as a drink to pregnant women to ease the proce3ss of labor; it could also effective as a cure to flatulence, dysentery and problems during period and sex diseases.
Pegaga is the herbs from family Umbelliferae a slender and herbs with long stalked, green kidney-shape leaves.
As cited in Razak Hj Lajiz 1996 said that Petai Parkia speciosa is very much favoured by Malaysian especially in the villege people. Despite its pungent smell, it could cure diabetes, heart and kidney disease. Petai is tall and big tree, which normally grows wild in forest. Ginger Zinger officinale is also identified to be used in curing kembung perut and could release gas/ wind in body. Young ginger can be made ulam and could be eaten as ulam or could be made as juice. It could also cure headaches
3.1 Discription of Study Site
Map 1 shows the location of study site in Bukit Tapah
3.2.1 Plot Design
Study site consist of 75 plots sized radius 18 meter each. Each plot sized 1017.36 meter square So for 75 plots sized is 7.63 hektar. Selecting randomly. The study plot will refer thru grid reference by using GPS handheld Garmin eTrek.