Estimations of the value of Parks and Protected areas
Global biodiversity assessment
An increasing number of studies in recent years have applied various valuation methods to value parks and other protected areas. Here we select a sample of these studies to illustrate the use of different valuation method in valuing different forest products, services and functions of tropical forest habitat and to provide a sense of their range of values that are obtained compared with traditional forest values.
Tobias and mendelson (1990) as cited in Global assessment biodiversity have estimated the value of ecotourisme in the Monteverde Cloud Reserve in Costa Rica using the travel cost method.Munasinghe (1993) presents the preliminary results from a World bank study that assesses the costs
They obtained a net present value of ecitourisme benefits (consumer surplus) for both domestic and foreign visitors totaling US$8 million for the 10,000 ha reserve or $1250 per hectare. This compares very favourably with a $ 30-$100 per hectare price of agricultural lan in surrounding areas. Therefore conservation of forest land agriculture in the area would result in a social loss $1000 per hectare, while expansion of the reserve would generate a substantial social gain. Yet, if the ecotourism value of the forest is not internalized to local landowners, expansion of the parks is uneconomic in private terms.
The average sonsumer surplus for the sample was estimated at US$35, which extrapolated over the entire visitor population and using a real rate of interest of 4%, yields a net present value for recreational use of forest of $1250 per hectare. The World Bank estimates that activities related to tourism world-wide approaches $@ trillion annually
Ecotourisme is emerging as one of the fastest growing components of this industry with as many as 235 million individuals particitaping in 1988, resulting in economi activity estimated at $233 billion. More than half of this ecotourism was related to animals (Filion et al., 1994)
In response to the severe threat of forest degradation and biodiversity loss, Madagascar is considering creating additional parks and national reserves. To offset the opportunity costs imposed on local people by park creation and to increase the likelihood of forest protection, nature tourism and buffer zone activities have been included in some park projects.
Two of the more important and more difficult to measure economic impacts of national parks creations are the costs incurred by local villagers and the benefit received by foreign tourists.
The opportunity cost approach, travel cost method and contigent valuation approach were used to assess these values in the new Mantadia National Parks. To estimate the proportion of travel expenditure which should be attached to the site in question, a series of questions was prepared regarding costs, itinerary, willingness to pay for the site, as well as economic and sociodemographic characteristics. The preliminary resilts are summarized this table
Item valued Valuation technique Aggregated net present value (20 years and 10% DR
1. Direct use benefit of forest by local villagers_africulture, fuelwood, crayfish, crab,tenrec, frog Opportunity cost (production function approach) US$566,070
2.Net benefit of forest for local villagers_including use and non use costs and benefits Contingent valuation US$673,078
3. Direct use benefits of tourists_tourism benefit only Travel cost US$796 870
4. Net benefit of park creation for tourists_ may include tourism and other perceived benefits and costs of parks creation, e.g. lemur conservation Contigent valuation US$2,160,000
Sources based on Munasinghe (1993) and Kramer (1993)
Dixon and Sherman (1990) have estimated the value of biodiversity of the Khao Yai Park in Thailand at $4.8 million per year and its ecotourisme value in the range of $0.4-$1.0 million per year. These values compare favourably with tha almost $7million a year loss of income to villagers from traditional from users forgone due to the parks.
On the benefit side, the watershed and carbon sequestration value of the forest were not estimated, nor were the non use values. On the opportunity cos
Table: Ecosystem functions and their uses
Regulation functions Production functions Carrier functions Information functions
Providing support for economics activity and human welfare through: Providing basic resources, such as: Providing space and a suitable substrate inter alia for: Providing aesthetics, cultural and scientific benefits through:
a. protection against harmful cosmic influences a. oxygen a. habitation a. aesthetics information
b. climate regulation b. food,drinking water and nutrition b.agriculture, forestry, fishery, aquaculture b. spiritual and religious information
c.watershed protection and catchment c. water for industry. Households etcd. Engineering projects such as dams and roads c. industry c. cultural and artistic inspiration
d. erosion prevention and soil protection d. clothing and fabrics d. recreation d.education and scientifics information
e. storage and recycling of industrial and human waste e.building, construv\ction and manufacturing materials e. nature conservation e. potential information
f. storage and recyling of organic matter and mineral nutrients f. energy and fuel
g.maintenance of biological and generics diversity g. minerals
h. biologival control h. medicinal resources
i. providing a migratoty, nursery and feeding habitat i.biochemical resources
j. genetic resources
k. ornamental resources
Sources : barbier et al., (1994); based on de Groot (1992); Ehrlich (1992); Folke (1991); Odum (1975) as cited in Global Assessment Biodiversity.
Estimates of the use vakue of forests
Tropical moist forests harbour between two-thirds and three-quarters of the world’s species. However, we emphasize that the remarks made about tropical forests apply. The particular problem posed by the conservation of tropical forests is that while human-made plantations maintain rainfall regimes and cycle carbon at rates similar to those of indigenous forest is converted to plantations. Conservation of genetics resources should be evaluated along with other goods and serviced by forests. And should form an integral part of land use and management. This is not to say that all forests should be preserved. The aim of conservation should be to optimize the provision of ecological and other services and this does not necessarily imply the preservation of the existing resources in all its facets
Indirect use value of ecological functions
1. watershed protection of fisheries
2. control of flooding by forests
3. soil fertility maintenance by forests
4. watershed protection of marine tourism
5. watershed protection of fisheries
6. water yield augmentation of managed forest
7. carbon storage by forest
8. support by mangroves of agriculture, fishing and cottage industries
9. nitrogen reduction by restored wetland
Tropical forest provide a diverse range of functions and services, including sustainable timber production, non-timber forest products, soil conservation and watershed protection, habitat d\for biodiversity, homeland for indigenous and animal/wildlife such elephant , tiger,bear,seladang, fox, birds, bees etc
The fiunction also including recreational activities and services, amelioration of n\microclimate, and carbon fixation and sequestration and the for army gerilla tactical strategy /counter insurgency warfare such as the event warfare that occurred in Vietnam. When Us attacked IndoChina…history event.
All this functions and services have positive economic value that contributes to human well being, they are rarely taken into account when land use and forest management decisions are made.
Posted by Mujahidiin at 10:45 AM
Leadership and Intelligence _17.6_10.45am
Running Head: LEADERSHIP AND INTELLIGENCE IN THE ORGANISATION:
The Department of Wildlife and National Park
MOHD SAIPUDDIN HAJI MAT YUNUS
Paper submitted as partial fulfilment of the requirement for Master Human Science Industrial / Organisation Psychology supervised by ………………………at the Department of Psychology of the International Islamic University Malaysia
CENTRE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCES
KULLIYYAH ISLAMIC REVEAL KNOWLEDGE AND HUMAN SCIENCES
According to Bryman (1996) as cited in Millward (2005) notes, however, that most researchers would not argue with a definition of leadership as the process (act) of influencing the activities of an organized group in its efforts towards goal setting and goal achievement’ (Stogdill, 1950:3) as cited in Millward, 2005. The influence process is inextricably linked with groups and the group process. In the early stages of leadership research, the ability to lead was attributed to distinctive traits (so-called ‘great man’ theory). However, a comprehensive and landmark review by Stogdill (1948) as cited in Millward (2005) concluded that there was no evidence for this claim, and research took another turn. In particular, the focus shifted towards understanding how exactly leaders behave, and to linking different group processes with different styles of behaviour.
According to Brodbeck (2008) as edited by Nik Chmiel, (2008) mention that leadership in organizations, means having and being seen to have the ability to influence and enable others to contribute toward the success of their work unit or organization.
According to Brodbeck (2008) as edited by Chmiel (2008) mention that from the beginning of leadership research up until about the 1960’s most leadership research focused on personal characteristics of leaders (e.g., intelligence, temperament. Motives, personal values) following the idea that “a leader is born- not made”.
It seems that leadership success criteria are related to certain leadership traits. For example traits like high energy level and stress tolerance help managers to cope with the hectic pace of their job, the long hours, and the frequently encountered stressful interpersonal situations, and self-confidence(i.e., self efficacy, self-esteem), relates positively to advancement and being perceived as a charismatic leader (for a review about personality and leadership, see Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhard, 2002)
Note that there are some close relationships between personality traits, like intelligence, and certain skill, like abstract thinking.
Charismatics leadership is usually defined more narrowly than tarnsfomational leadership. Behaviors typical of charismatics leaders are for example, the articulation of appealing visions, communication of high expectations and expression og high confidence in followers.
According to West (2002) edtied by Chmiel (2008) mention that the leader’s task also includes helping team members develop their skill and abilities such as cognitive ability.
Cognitive ability (Intelligence) Tests
Psychometric tests are standardized measures designed to assess a specific construct, and can be divided into two main categories: cognitive ability tests (Intelligence test) and personality tests (e.g., Smith & Smith, 2005) as cited in Chmiel (2008). Cognitive abilities tests, or tests of general mental ability (“g” or GMA), measure general intelligence or specific aptitude such as numerical, verbal, spatial ability, while personality tests measure personality dimensions such as conscientousness, extrovertion, and so forth.. There is variation across Europe in relation to the use of cognitive ability test (Intelligence Test) (Salgado & Anderson as cited in Anderson, Salgado, Schinkel and Snell (2008): They are more used in Belgium, Britain, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain than in France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, or Italy; also they are more frequently used in Europe than in the United States. Candidates responds moderately well to cognitive tests (Chan & Schmitt, 2004; Steiner & Gilliland, 1996) as cited in Anderson et al., (2008), but tends to rate tests with concrete items as more job-related than abstracts tests (Smither et al., 1993) as cited in Anderson et al. (2008) as edited by Chmiel (2008). Hence, organizations may generate higher performance from candidates by selecting ability tests which have high face validity.
Cognitive ability tests are generally based upon general mental ability, GMA or “g”, and meta-analyses have demonstrated notably robust predictive validity for such tests (Bertua, Anderson, & Salgado, 2005; Hunter & Hunter, 1984; Levine, Sector, Menon, Narayanan, & Cannon-Bowers, 1996; Salgado & Anderson, 2002, 2003; Salgado, Anderson, Moscoso, Bertua, & de Fruyt, 2003; salgado, Anderson, Moscoso, Bertua, de Fruyt, & Rolland, 2003; Schmitt, Gooding, Noe, & Kirsch, 1984) as cited in Anderson et al., (2008)
Cognitive Resource theory
Another contemporary perspective on leadership explored the circumstances under which intelligence or experience best predicts leader effectiveness. Cognitive resource theory (CRT- Fieldler and Garcia, 1987) as cited in Gist and Mann (2000) edited by Cooper and Locke (2000) posits that intellectual abilities are best under low stress conditions, but that prior experience leads to greater effectiveness under conditions of high stress. Although this theory has evident utility for leader selection, it also has been applied to leader training, In a typical study of university students, Murphy et al. (1992) found that leaders’ expertise contributed to group effectiveness only if leaders were first trained in task-relevant knowledge and then were directive in their behavior. We note that this is a form of cognitive-skills training, and that it relates to findings from the group decision-making literature. There it was shown that a person’s technical expertise facilitates decisions when that person has the most knowledge among group members, and that the group’s performance only capitalizes on the knowledge of its “best member” if that person exrts influence (for example, Bottger, 1984; Bottger and Yetton, 1988; Vroom and Jago. 1978) as cited in Gist and Mann (2000) edited by Cooper and Locke (2000).
Some Researchers think individual differences in intelligence are of great importance in understanding why people bahve in different ways from each others, whereas others argue that intelligence is an almost valueless concept. Some researchers ( e.g., H.J Eysenck, 1981) as cited in Eysenck 2004) believe that individual differences in intelligence are almost entirely due to heredity, but others (e.g., Kamin, 1981) claim that only environmental factors are of importance.
As reasonable definition of intelligence was offered by Sternbergand Ben-Zeev (20010, p. 368) as cited in Eysenck (2004): “the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to the surrounding environment”.
Cultural differences in conceptions of intelligence do exist, but they are not typically very great. Sternberg, Conway, Ketron, and Berstien (1981) found that there were three ingredients to Americans’ conceptions of intelligence: verbal ability, practical problem solving, and social competence.
Theories of Intelligence
We have considered aspects of the traditional theory of intelligence. This theory had its origins in the work of spearman (1972) as cited in Eysenck (2004), but was subsequently endorsed by several theorist including H.J. Eysenck (1979) as cited in Eysenck (2004) and Herrnstein and Murray (1994) as cited in Eysenck (2004). Key assumptions of the traditional theory are as follows:
o Individual differ in a single psychological process that can be assessed by the general factor of intelligence or by IQ.
o Intelligence tests provide an adequate assessment of human intelligence
o Intelligence depends mainly on genetic factors. H.J Eysenck (1979) as cited in Eysenck (2004) argued that, “Intelligence as measured by IQ tests has a strong genetic basis; genetic factors account for an estimated 80% of the total variance.”
o The fact that intelligence is largely inherited means it is difficult to change an individual’s level of intelligence.
Pg 435 Eysenck (2004)
There are many different models of leadership style, but common to all is the assumption that leadership behaviour can be described in two main ways: task-oriented and relationship-oriented. The task style is oriented to managing task accomplishment (where the leader defines clearly and closely what subordinates should be doing and how, and actively schedules work for them), whilst the relationship style is oriented to managing the interpersonal relations to group members (by demonstrating concern about subordinates as people, responsiveness to subordinate needs and the promotion of team spirit and cohesion).
Other terms have been used to differentiate between these two distinct sets of orientation, including ‘initiating structure’ versus ‘consideration’ (Fleishman, 1953) as cited in Millward, 2005, ‘production-oriented’ versus people-oriented’ (Blake & Mouton, 1964) as cited in Millward, 2005, ‘production-centered’ versus ‘employee-centered (Likert,1967), ‘task emphasis’ versus relations emphasis’ (Fiedler, 1967) as cited in Millward, 2005 and ‘performance concern’ versus ‘maintenance concern’ (Misumi, 19850 as cited in Millward, 2005
The ‘initiating structure/ consideration’ distinction has had a major impact on leadership theory and research since the 1950s. It forms the basis of many leadership measures, for instance the Supervisory Behaviour Description Questionnaire (Fleish, 1953) as cited in Millward,2005- a vehicle for asking subordinates how they think should behave as a supervisor- and the Leader Behaviour Description Questionnaire (LBDQ); (Fleisman, 1953) as cited in Millward, 2005 probably the most frequently employed measure of leadership.
Some highly specialized Q-sorts include the Leadership Q-Test (Cassel,1958) as cited in Cohen and Swedlik, (2010) and the Tyler Vocational Classification System (Tyler, 1961) as cited in Cohen and Swedlik , (2010).
Personal Characteristics Associated with Leadership
In the last 100 years, many attempts have been made to identify the personal characteristics associated with leader emergence and leader performance Aamodt, (2010).
Leader emergence is the idea that people who become leaders possess traits or characteristic different from people who do not become leaders. That is, people who become leaders, such as Barrack H. Obama and CEOs Carly Fiorina and Michael Dell, share traits that your neighbor or a food preparer at McDonald’s does not. If we use your school as an example, we would predict that the students in your student government would be different from students who do not participate in leadership activities. In fact, research indicates that to some extent, people are “born’ with a desire to lead or not lead, as somewhere between 17% (Ilies, Gerhardt,&Le, 2004) as cited in Aamodt, 2010 and 30% (Arvey, Rotundo, Johnson, Zhang,&McGue,2006) as cited in Aamodt, (2010) of leader emergence has a genetic basis (Ilies et al.,2004) as cited in Aamodt, (2010).
Does that mean that there is a “leadership gene” that influences leader emergence? Probably not. Instead we inherit certain traits and abilities that might influence our decision to seek leadership.
Though early reviews of the literature suggested that the relationship between traits and leader emergence is not very strong, as shown in Table 12.1, more recent reviews suggest that
1. People high in openness, conscientiousness, and extraversion, and low in neuroticism are more likely to emergence as leaders than their counterparts (Judge, Bono, Ilies & Gerhardtm, 2002) as cited in Aamodt, 2010.
2. High self-monitors (people who adapt their behavior to the social situation) emerge as leaders more often than low self-monitors (Day & Schleicher, 2006; Day, Schleicher,Unckless, & Hiller, 2002) as cited in Aamodt, (2010).
3. More intelligent people are more likely to emerge as leaders than are less intelligent people (Judge, Colbert, & Ilies, 2004) as cited in Aamodt, (2010).
4. Looking at patterns of abilities and personality traits is more useful than looking at individual abilities and traits (Foti & Hauenstein, 2007) as cited in Aamodt, (2010)
It is especially perplexing that some of the early reviews concluded that specific trait are seldom related to leader emergence because both anecdotal evidence and research suggest that leadership behavior has some stability (Law,1996) as cited in Aamodt, (2010). To illustrate this point, think of a friend you consider to be a leader. In all probability, that person is leader in many situations. That is, he might influence a group of friends about what movie to see, make decision about what time everyone should meet for dinner, and “take charge” when playing sports
Conversely, you probably have a friend who has never assumed a leadership role in his life. Thus, it appears that some people consistently emerge as leaders in a variety of situations, whereas others never emerge as leaders.
Perhaps one explaination for the lack of agreement on a list of traits consistently related to leader emergence is that the motivation to lead is more complex than originally thought. In a study using a large international sample, Chan and Drasgow, (2001) as cited in Aamodt, (2010) found that the motivation to lead has three aspects (factors): Affective identity, non calculative, and social-normative. People with an affective identity motivation become leaders because they enjoy being in charge and leading others. Of the three leadership motivation factors, people scoring high on this one tend to have the most leadership experience and are rated by others as having high leadership potential. Those with a non calculative motivation seek leadership position when they perceive that such positions will result in personal gain. For example, becoming a leader may result in an increase in status or in pay. People with a social-normative motivation become leaders out of a sense of duty. For example, a member of the Kiwanis Club might agree to be the next president because it is “his turn”, or a faculty member might agree to chair a committee out of a sense of commitment to the university.
Individuals with high leadership motivation tend to obtain leadership experience and have confidence in their leadership skills (Chan & Drasgow, 2001) as cited in Aamodt, (2010). Therefore after researching the extent to which leadership is consistent across life, it makes sense that Bruce (1997) as cited in Aamodt, (2010) concluded that the best way to select a chief executive officer (CEO) is to look for leadership qualities (e.g., risk taking, innovation, vision) and success early in person’s career. As support for his proposition, Bruce cites the following examples:
1. Harry Gray, the former chair and CEO of United Technologies, demonstrated vision, risk taking, and innovation as early as the second job in his career.
2. Ray Tower, former president of FMC Corporation, went way beyond his job description as a salesperson in his first job to create a novel sales training program. Tower continued to push his idea despite upper management’s initial lack of interest.
3. Lee Iacocca, known for his heroics at Ford and Chrysler, pioneered the concept of new car financing. His idea of purchasing a 1956 Ford for monthly payments of $56 (“Buy a ’56 for $56”) moved his sales division from last in the country to first. What is most interesting abaout this success is that Iacocca didn’t even have the authority to implement his plan-but he did it anyway.
The role of gender in leader emergence is complex. Meta-analysis indicate that men and women emerge as leaders equally often in leaderless group discussions (Benjamin, 1996) as cited in Aamodt, 2010), men emerge as leaders more often in short-term groups and group carrying out tasks with low social interaction (Eagly & Karau, 1991) as cited in Aamodt, (2010), and women emerge as leaders more often in groups involving high social interaction (Eagly & Karau, 1991 as cited in Aamodt, (2010).
In contrast to leader emergence, which deals with the likelihood that a person will become a leader, leader performance involves the idea that leaders who perform well possess certain characteristics that poorly performing leaders do not. For example, an excellent leader might be intelligent, assertive, friendly and independent, whereas a poor leader might be shy, aloof, and calm. Research on the relationship between personal characteristics and leader performance has concentrated on three areas: traits, needs and orientation.
As shown in Table 12.1, a mete- analysis by Judge et al (2002) as cited in Aamodt (2010) found that extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were positively related to leader performance. A meta-analysis by Youngjohn and Woehr (2001) as cited in Aamodt, (2010) also found that management, decision making, and oral-communication skills were highly correlated with leadership effectiveness
As was the case with leader emergence, high self-monitors tend to be better leaders than do low self-monitors (Day & Schleicher, 2006; Day et al., 2002) as cited in Aamodt, (2010). The concept of self monitoring is especially interesting, as it focuses on what leaders do as opposed to what they are. For example, a high self-monitoring leader may possess the trait of shyness and not truly want to communicate with other people. She knows, however, that talking to others is an important part of her job, so she says hello to her employees when she arrives at work, and at least once a day stops and talks with each employee. Thus, our leader has the trait of shyness but adapts her outward behavior to appear to be outgoing and confident.
An interesting extension of the trait theory of leader performance suggests that certain traits are necessary requirements for leadership excellence is a function of the right person being in the right place at the right time. The fact that one person with certain traits becomes an excellent leader while another with the same traits flounders may be no more than the result of timing and chance. For example, Lyndon Johnson and Martin Luther King, Jr were considered successful leaders because of their strong influence on improving civil rights. Other people prior to the 1990s had had same thoughts, ambitions, and skills as King and Johnson, yet they had not become successful civil rights leaders, perhaps because the time had not been right.
A meta-analysis of 151 studies by Judge et al. (2004) as cited in Aamodt (2010) found a moderate but significant correlation (r=.17) between cognitive ability and leadership performance. The mete-analysis further discovered that cognitive ability is most important when the leader is not distracted by stressful situations and when the leader uses a more directive leadership style. In studies investigating the performance of united states Presidents, it was found that the presidents rates by historians as being the most successful were smart and open to experience, had high goals, and interestingly had the ability to bend the truth (Dingfelder, 2004; Rubenzer & Faschinbauer,2004) as cited in Aamodt (2010) has expanded on the importance of cognitive ability by theorizing that the key to effective leadership is the synthesis of three variables:wisdom, intelligence (academic and practical), and creativity.
A personal characteristic that has received some support pertains to a leader’s need for power, need for achievement, and need for affiliation. In fact, as shown in Table 12.1, a meta- analysis by Argus and Zajack (2008) as cited in Aamodt (2010) found a significant relationship between need for achievement and leader performance. Research by McClelland and Burnham (1976) as cited in Aamodt 2010 and McClelland and Botatzis (1982) also as cited in Aamodt 2010 demontrates that high-performance managers have a leadership motive pattern, which is high need for power and a low need for affiliation. The need is not for personal power but for organizational power.
This pattern of needs is thought to be important because it implies that an effective leader should be concerned more with results than with being liked. Leader who needs to be liked by their subordinates will have a tough time making decisions. A decision to make employees work overtime, for example, may be necessary for the organization’s survival, but it will probably be unpopular with employees. Leaders with high affiliation needs may decide that being liked is more important than being successful, causing conflict with their decision.
This theory would also explain why internal promotions often do not work. Consider, for example, a person who worked for six years as a loan officer. He and ten coworkers often went drinking together after work and went away on weekends. One day he was promoted to manager, and he had to lead the same people with whom he had been friends. The friendships and his need to be liked hindered the new manager when giving orders and disciplining his employees. When he tried to separate himself from his friends, he was disciplining his employees. When he tried to separate himself from his friends, he was quickly thought of as being “too good” for them- a tough situation with no apparent solution, according to this theory.
This does not mean that a leader should not be friendly and care about subordinates. But successful leaders will not place their need to be liked above the goals of the organization. President Richard Nixon was thought to have a high need to be liked. He would often make a tough decision and then apologize for it because he wanted to be liked both the public and the press. Needs for power, achievement, and affiliation can be measured through various psychology tests.
The most commonly used is the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) The TAT is a projective test in which a person is shown a series of pictures and asked to tell a story about what is happening in each. A trained psychologist then analyzes the stories, identifying the needs themes contained within them. Obviously, this technique is time-consuming and requires a great deal of training.
Another commonly used measure is the Job Choice Exercise (JCE), developed by Stahl and Harrell (1982) as cited in Aamodt (2010). with the JCE, the person reads descriptions of jobs that involve varying degrees of power, achievement, and affiliation needs and rates how desirable he finds each particular job. These rating are then subjected to a complicated scoring procedure that uses regression analysis to reveal scores on the tree needs categories.
Another method to determine leaders’ needs is to examine the themes that occur in their writing and speeches. In one interesting use of this method, it was found that Presidents Franklin Roosevelt, Kennedy, and Reagan had high needs for power; Presidents Harding, Truman, and Nixon had high needs for affiliation; and Presidents Wilson, Hoover, and Carter had high needs for achievement (Winter,1988) as cited in Aamodt (2010).
As with leader emergence, meta-analysis suggest that the role of gender in leader effectiveness is complex. When all studies are combined, men and women appear not to differ in leadership effectiveness (Eagly Karau, & Makhijani, 1995) as cited in Aamodt (2010). However, men were more effective as leaders in situations traditionally defined in less masculine terms. Though men and women appear to be equally effective leaders, a meta-analysis of leadership style indicated that women were more likely than men to engage in behaviors associated with high-quality leadership (Eagly, Johannesen-Schmidt, & van Engen, 2003) as cited in Aamodt, (2010)
Task Versus Person Oriented
Over the last 45 years, three major schools of thought- Ohio State Studies (Fleishman, Harris, & Burtt, 1955), Theory X (McGregor, 1960) and Managerial Grid (Blake & Mouton, 1984) as cited Aamodt, (2010) - have postulated that differences in leaders performance can be attributed to differences in the extent to which leaders are task versus person oriented. As shown in Figure 12.1, though the three schools of thought use different terms, they say similar things.
Person oriented leaders such as country club leaders, Theory Y leaders, and leaders high in consideration act in warm and supportive manner and show concern for their subordinates. Person-oriented leaders believe that employees are intrinsically motivated, seek responsibility, are self-controlled, and do not necessarily dislike work. Because of these assumptions, person-oriented leaders consult their subordinates before making decisions, praise their work, ask about their families, do not look over their shoulder, and use a more “hands-off” approach to leadership. Under pressure, person-oriented leaders tend to become socially withdrawn (Bond,1995) as cited in Aamodt (2010).
Task-oriented leaders such as task-centered leaders, Theory X leaders, and leaders high in initiating structure define and structure their own roles and those of their subordinates to attain the group’s formal goals.
Task oriented leaders see their employees as lazy, extrinsically motivated, wanting security, undisciplined, and shirking responsibility. Because of these assumptions, task oriented leaders tend to manage or lead by giving directives, setting goals, and making decisions without consulting their subordinates. Under pressure, they become anxious, defensive, and dominant (Bond, 1995) as cited in Aamodt, (2010), Interestingly, task-oriented leaders tend to produce humor (e.g., tell jokes and stories), whereas person-oriented leaders tend to appreciate humor (e.g., listen to others’ jokes) (Philbrick, 1989) as cited in Aamodt, (2010). As shown in Figure 12.2, when using the terms from Figure 12.1, the best leaders (team) are both task and person oriented, whereas the worst (impoverished) are neither task nor person oriented. Some leaders (middle-of-the-road) have moderate amounts of both orientations.
A meta-analysis by Judge, Piccolo, and Ilies (2004) as cited in Aamodt, (2010) found that higher scores on consideration or on initiating structure were associated with such positive leadership’s criteria as follower satisfaction and group performance. The relationship between person orientation (consideration) and follower satisfaction, follower motivation, and ratings leadership effectiveness were higher than the relationships between task orientation (initiating structure) and these same three leadership’s criteria.
A leader’s task or person orientation can be measured by several instruments two of which are the Leadership Opinion Questionnaire (LOQ) and the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ). The LOQ is filled out by supervisors or leaders who want to know their own behavior style. The LBDQ is completed by subordinates to provide a picture of how they perceive their leader’s behavior. A meta-analysis by Eagly and Johnson (1990) as cited in Aamodt, (2010) indicated that in laboratory studies, women were more likely to have a person orientation and less likely to have a task orientation than were men. They did not find any such difference in studies that were conducted in actual organizations. They did, however, find small gender differences in that women were more likely to use a more participative approach and more likely to use a more approach.
As depicted in Figure 12.2 theoretically, person-oriented leaders should have satisfied employees, whereas task-oriented leaders should have productive employees. Leaders scoring high in both (called team leadership) should have satisfied and productive employees, whereas leaders scoring low in both (called impoverished leadership) should have unhappy and unproductive employees (Fleishman & Harris, 1962; Hucthison, Valentino, & Kirkner, 1998; Korman,1966; Pool, 1997) as cited in Aamodt, (2010).
Although these predictions certainly make sense, the meta-analysis by Judge and his colleagues (2004) as cited in Aamodt, (2010) found that consideration scores (person orientation) were strongly correlated with follower satisfaction, follower motivation, and creating of leadership effectiveness than were initiating structure scores (task orientation). Correlations with the performance of the work group were similar in magnitude for both consideration and initiating structure.
To complicate matters further, the relationship between person and task orientation is probably more complex than was first thought. Several studies have shown that leader experience and knowledge and such external variables as time pressures and work importance tend to moderate the relationship between person-orientation scores and satisfaction and between task-orientation scores and subordinate performance.
The traits and behaviors of unsuccessful leaders are not necessarily the opposite of those of successful leaders (Hackman & Wageman, 2007) as cited in Aamodt, (2010). In a departure from research to identify characteristics of successful leaders, Hogan (1989) as cited in Aamodt, (2010) attempted to identify traits of unsuccessful leaders. Hogan was interested in investigating poor leaders because, according to both emphirical researches and anecdotal accounts, most employees report that one of the greatest sources of stress in their jobs is their supervisors’ poor performance, strange behavior, or both. This finding should come as no surprise: You can probably quickly recall many examples of poor performance or strange behavior with current of former supervisors.
Lack of Training
On the basis of years of research, Hogan (1989) as cited in Aamodt, (2010) conclude that poor leader behavior has three major causes. The first is a lack of leadership training given to supervisors. The armed forces are among the few organizations that require supervisors to complete leadership training before taking change of groups of people. The norm for most organization, however is either to promote a current employee or hire a new employee and place him directly into leadership role. If training is ever provided, it is usually after the promotion and well after supervisor has begun supervising. The serious consequences of this lack of training can best be understood if we imagine allowing doctors to perform surgery without training or truck drivers to drive on the highways without first learning how to drive.
The second cause of poor leadership stems from cognitive deficiencies. Hogan (1989) as cited in Aamodt, (2010) believes that poor leaders are unable to learn from experience and are unable to think strategically-they consistently make the same mistakes and do not plan ahead. Support for this concept comes from the meta-analysis by Judge et al. (2004) as cited in Aamodt, (2010) which found a significant relationship between cognitive ability and leader performance.
The manger of a local convenience store that I frequent is an example of a person who does not learn from his mistakes. The manager did not give employees their work schedules until one or two days before they had to work. The employees complained because the hours always changed and they could not schedule their personal, family, and social lives. But the manager continued to do it his way, and most of the employees quit. Eight years later, he still does it his way, and his employees still leave at a high rate.
The third, and perhaps most important, source of poor leadership behavior involves the personality of the leader. Hogan (1989) as cited in Aamodt, (2010) believed that many unsuccessful leaders are insecure and adopt one of three personality types: the paranoid or passive-aggressive, the high likability floater, and the narcissist.
The source of insecurity for leaders who are paranoid, passive-aggressive, or both is some incident in their life in which they felt betrayed. This paranoid/ passive-aggressive leader has deeply rooted, but perhaps unconscious, resentment and anger. On the surface, these leaders are charming, quiet people who often compliment their subordinates and fellow workers. But they resent the success of others and are likely to act against subordinates in a passive-aggressive manner; that is, on the surface they appear to be supportive, but at the same time they will “stab’ another person in the back.
The type of leader who is insecure and seldom rocks the boat or causes trouble is known as a high-likability floater. This person goes along with the group, is friendly to everyone, and never challenges anyones’s ideas. Thus, he travels through life with many friends and no enemies. The reason he has no enemies is because he never does anything, challenges anyone, or stands up for the rights of his employees. Such leaders will be promoted and never fired because even though they make no great performance advances, they are well liked. Their employees have high morale but show relatively low performance.
Are leaders who overcome their insecurity by overconfidence. They like to be the center of attention, promote their own accomplishments, and take most, if not all, of the credit for the success of their groups-but they avoid all blame for failure.
Rather than concentrate on traits as did Hogan, Shen and her colleagues (2008) as cited in Aamodt, (2010) collected critical incidents of an ineffective leader behavior and found that such behavior fell under ten basic dimensions:
1. Engaging in illegal and unethical behavior
2. Avoiding conflict and people problems
3. Demonstrating poor emotional control (e.g., yelling and screaming)
4. Over-controlling (e.g., micromanaging)
5. Demonstrating poor task performance
6. Poor planning, organization, and communication
7. Starting or passing on rumors or sharing confidential information
8. Procrastinating and not meeting time commitments
9. Failing to accommodate the personal needs of subordinates
10. Failing to nurture and manage talent
Issues include the factors which influence the amount of effort expended at work, the influence of job satisfaction on levels of performance and organizational commitment, the processes that underly group behaviour and decision making, and the exercise of power and influence in organizations. Also of interest is the nature of leadership and followership, and the management of organizational change.
So far we have largely been talking about top management. The focus on top management has also led to a renewed interest in the process of leadership both within senior teams and at every level within the organization (see, e.g., Schruijer, 1992; Sparrow, 1994 as cited in Doyle 2002). Shell for instance, encapsulates its vision as “Leaders leading Leaders” (Steel, 1997 as cited in Doyle 2002). Much is made of the ability to formulate and communicate vision. From ideas such as this, Bass and his colleagues proposed the concept of transformational leadership, in which the leader’s ability to inspire and empower followers and to create a belief in the attainability of the vision are stressed (Bass,1999;Bass & Avolio, 1990 as cited in Doyle 2002). Many culture change programmes begin with leadership development of senior managers, which then spreads more widely throughout the organization. Schruijer and Vansina (1999a, 1999b) as cited in Doyle 2002 edit and provide a commentary on a fascinating collection of papers that consider the role of leadership in organizational change. They raise a number of important and difficult questions concerning top-level leadership in organizations, including the extent to which one should focus on the individual qualities of the leader or on the incredibly complex set of relationships between leaders and followers. For instance, followers may exhibit dependence on, trust in, loyalty, and commitment to the leader but nevertheless aspire to an complete strongly for his or her job (Berg, 1998 as cited in Doyle 2002). Schruijer and Vansina conclude that one thing characterizing successful leaders in today’s turbulent business environment is their capacity to collaborate with diverse groups and stakeholders to achieve strategic objectives. The dynamics of this kind of shared leadership are illuminated by the work of De Vries, Roe, and Tailieu (1999) as cited in Doyle 2002 and Rijaman (1999) as cited in Doyle 2002, who both emphasize a “follower-centred” approach. Alimo-Metcalfe and Alban-Matcalfe (2000) as cited in Doyle 2002 are also considering the influence of “nearby” leaders rather than